Activity 2: Designing and implementing a plan

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Like any other skill, thinking about a plan and putting it into action can be two different things. To have an effective practice, you must make decisions and implement plans. This process requires a synthesis of information. Although we have spent a lot of time searching for and appraising the best available research evidence, evidence-based practice requires that a clinician synthesizes this information by using her/his expertise and traits and knowledge of his/her client’s perspectives and circumstances.

When considering the client’s beliefs and values, ensure that you consider her/his religious and spiritual beliefs and values. In “Religion, Spirituality, and the Troublesome Use of Substances” (Chapter 16 in your textbook), Humphreys & Gifford point out that “religious involvement remains the strongest protective factor in the prevention of troublesome substance use initiation among children and adolescents” (p. 257). Any treatment plan must be consistent with the client’s beliefs and values. Spiritually-oriented 12 step self-help groups such as AA and NA have shown good efficacy in the reduction of substance use. When working with Aboriginal people, understanding and appreciating the role of spirituality in their lives is fundamental to any plan.


  1. Read: Fineout-Overholt, E., & Johnston, L. (2006). Teaching EBP: Implementation of evidence— Moving from evidence to action. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 3(4), 194–200.
  2. Reread: Glasner-Edwards, S., & Rawson, R. (2010). Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: Review and recommendations for public policy. Health Policy, 97(2–3), 93–104.

    Pay particular attention to the sections on clinical expertise and practice-based evidence.

  3. Focusing on the case study situations that you have been working on throughout Lessons 5 and 6, write 200–300 words summarizing your experience, expertise, and personal traits that inform your decision making.
  4. Read Humphreys and Gifford’s “Religion, Spirituality, and the Troublesome Use of Substances” in Chapter 16 in your textbook.
  5. In the case study situation that you have been working on, write 100–200 words that describe what you know about (or can hypothesize about for the purposes of learning) the client’s needs, values, or preferences. You may hypothesize based on what you know about the population that this client represents.
  6. Finally, write a summary recommendation statement. This recommendation should be a succinct 200–300 words that indicate the decision you are recommending to the client and that support this decision using an evidence-based model related to the integration of scientific knowledge; your experience and judgment; and the client’s preferences, values, and circumstances. Remember this statement should be professionally written in a way that the colleagues, clients, and other professionals can understand.